The Republic of Armenia occupies 29.74 thousand square kilometers. The average height of its territory above sea level is 1800 meters, the highest point is the peak of Mount Aragats - 4,090 meters, the lowest height is the Debed River gorge - 380 meters. The greatest length from northwest to southeast is 360 kilometers, from west to east 200 kilometers.
This is only a small part of the vast mountainous country, called the Armenian upland, its area reaches 400,000 square kilometers, and the average height above sea level is 1700 - 1800 meters. The Armenian highlands are located in the Alpo-Himalayan mountain system.
The climate is sharply continental. Winter is cold and the summer is hot and dry. Rising in the mountains, the amount of precipitation increases and the dryness decreases. In the Republic are separated 10 climatic types, from dry-subtropical to mountain-tundra.
In the republic, the most abundant river is Araks. From its left bank tributaries the most important are the rivers Akhuryan, Sevdzhur, Hrazdan, Azat, Vedi, Meghri, Vokhchi and Vorotan. In general, the river network is very dense. There are 1,700 rivers and streams in the republic, with an average annual flow of 7.37 billion cubic meters.
The largest lake is Sevan. Over 300 lakes and small lakes are founded all over the territory.
The territory of Armenia is located at the junction of two floristic regions. The Circumboreal floristic region is characterized by mesophilic types of forests and meadows, and the Iranian-Turanian, xerophilic forests, semi-desert and steppe vegetative communities.
The fauna was formed at the junction of three regions: Asia Minor, Caucasus and Iran.
In the republic, there are 3200 species of higher plants (including forest dendroflora is 274 species) and 442 species of fauna. Of these, more than 400 species of higher plants and 100 species of fauna are registered in the Red Books of Armenia.
To protect valuable species of representatives of flora and fauna, as well as their communities, 33 specially protected territories have been created on the territory of Armenia. Of these, 3 conservations (Khosrov, Shikahokh, Erebuni), 4 national parks (Sevan, Dilijan, Arevik, Arpi) and 26 reservations (Aragats, Ger-ger, Gandzasar, Goris, Idjevan, Jermuk, Khustup, Vordan-karmir, Zikatar etc.).
The number of natural and historical monuments is more than 2000 units.